What varieties of plums are used and how are prunes made?


Plums are one of the most delicious and healthy fruits. They are used not only fresh, but also in the preparation of culinary dishes, as well as in preparations for the winter.

Dried plums or prunes are a valuable low-calorie product, which has healing properties due to its high content of vitamins and other nutrients, especially potassium.

What plum is better to make prunes?

Plums for making prunes must meet certain requirements:

  • the percentage of dry matter is about 20%;
  • the concentration of sugars in fruits - from 12%;
  • moisture and acid content - up to 1%;
  • fruit weight - from 30 to 40 g;
  • skin color - dark blue;
  • the fruits have a dense, intact skin, covered with a waxy coating, the stone is small.

What types of plums are suitable for making prunes?

Varieties such as Mirabelle, early blue, apricot and some others do not dry, since good prunes will not work out of them.

Hungarian

Hungarian is one of the most popular and common varieties of plum for prunes. Its fruits have excellent taste, high sugar content and ideal for drying.

Some varieties of Hungarian:

  1. B. Italian - self-fertile (does not require planting near the pollinator variety) mid-season variety. It is cultivated mainly in the southern regions, as it can freeze out at low temperatures. The trees are not tall, up to 5 m high, the crown diameter does not exceed 6 m. Begins to bear fruit in 4 or 5 years, the average yield is 50 kg of plums. Average weight of fruits - 35 g. Does not tolerate drought.
  2. V. home - late variety, demanding on heat. It is characterized by rapid growth, the average height is 6.5 m. Fruiting begins from 7–8 years of cultivation. At the age of 20, with optimal care, the maximum tree yield reaches 150 kg. Fruit weight - about 20 g.
  3. V. Wangenheim - an early variety, resistant to frost and diseases, can grow on insufficiently fertile soil. To increase the yield, it is recommended to carry out re-pollination of inflorescences. Already in the 6th year of cultivation, the seedling yields 15 kg of yield; upon reaching 10 years of age and older, its average yield is 60 kg. Fruit weight is about 30 g.
  4. V. korneevskaya - self-fertile mid-season variety, withstands frost and drought well. Begins to bear fruit for 3-4 years. Purple fruits weighing up to 35 g. Trees give bountiful harvests: already at the age of 6 they can reach 30 kg.

Renklod Karbyshev

Early high-yielding variety, the weight of the fruit is about 40 g. The stone is easily separated from the pulp. The crown of the tree is dense and requires regular pruning.

Adyghe prunes

Medium late self-fertile variety with abundant but periodic fruiting. Resistant to frost, drought, fungal diseases. The average fruit weight is 40 g.

Blue bird

Mid-season with abundant and regular fruiting... The first fruits appear as early as 2-3 years of growing the seedling. The average weight of the fruits is 45 g, they have excellent taste and an easily detachable seed.

The trees are self-fertile, resistant to cold and disease.

Raisin-eric

Crimean medium late plum variety... Trees require planting near pollinating varieties. They bring abundant harvests, at the age of 20 - from 115 kg. Fruiting begins from the 7th - 8th year from the moment of planting.

The size of the fruits is small, the shape is elongated pear-shaped, the average weight is 9.5 g. The trees are resistant to drought, grow better on fertile moisture-permeable soil.

How to properly dry prunes

Prunes are prepared from well-ripe fruits.that have accumulated a maximum of sugar and nutrients. Fruits that have fallen from a tree have the optimum degree of ripeness.

When selecting for drying, rotten, wormy, damaged plums should be rejected.

The most suitable for collection and subsequent drying are fruits with slightly wrinkled skin, containing a minimum of water. You can achieve such a state of falling plums by stopping watering the trees in advance (about 30 days before the harvest ripens).

The process of preparing prunes has its own characteristics.... It is impossible to achieve the required product quality by drying plums alone.

In this case, the fruits will lose their juice, their pulp will acquire excessive rigidity, and the skin will become not black, but brown.

To obtain the required product special preparation of berries is required, its stages:

  1. Drying drains are stored in basketslocated on the territory of covered areas. The maximum number of fruits placed in them should not exceed 16 kg. In this form, the fruit can be stored for up to 3 days in order to avoid spoilage of the plum due to fermentation processes.
  2. Before starting drying the fruits are thoroughly washed until the water obtained after rinsing them is absolutely clear.
  3. Then plum is sorted, separating large from small, with the subsequent rejection of berries that are not suitable for drying.
  4. Selected fruits once again washed and blanched in hot water... This softens their tissues, removes the air contained in them and leads to the expansion of the drain cells. In the process of blanching, oxidizing elements are destroyed with almost complete preservation of vitamins and other valuable substances.
  5. To remove wax deposits from the surface of berries they are lowered for 15-20 seconds in 1% solution of caustic soda... At home, it is difficult to completely wash off the remnants of soda from the fruit, so it is better to replace it with potash.
  6. Cooling drains, while many cracks form on their surface. They provide a slow release of moisture from the fruit, preventing the skin from bursting with a rapid loss of all juice, which will exclude the receipt of real prunes.

How prunes are made:

Preparing fruits for drying will not give the desired result if you do not adhere to the special rules for performing this process. It is not as simple as it might seem.

For this purpose, in a production environment, use multi-deck drying cabinets or tunnel (duct) dryers.

Initially, the fruits wilt slightly at 40-50 ° C for 3-5 hours so that they do not burst. Then the temperature is raised and drying is continued until the dried fruit acquires the required condition.

At this stage, biochemical processes take place in the tissues of the fruit, ensuring the acquisition of its characteristic taste qualities by the prune.

Drying plums at home

When making your own prunes the rules for preparing and drying plums should be followed as much as possible.

In the absence of special drying equipment, you can use a conventional oven or dry the fruit in the open air.

At home, you can dry plums in two ways:

  1. Evenly spreading the fruits in one layer on plywood sheets or other suitable surface located in direct sunlight... Plums must be turned over from one side to the other to avoid mold growth. After 5 days of drying in the sun, the fruits are transferred to the shade for final drying.
  2. In ovens the first 4 hours, the berries filled with juice are kept at 45 ° C, then turning off the heat to cool the fruits for 4 hours. In a next drying step of the same duration, the temperature is raised to 60 ° C, followed by cooling. The third stage lasts from 8 to 10 hours. The drying temperature during it rises to 75 ° C. When 3-5 minutes remain until the end of the process, you can raise the temperature to 100 ° C to give the dried fruit a beautiful shine.

The prunes that have reached readiness have a soft structure, their tissues contain a certain amount of juice, which ensures their elasticity. But at the same time, moisture does not come out of the dried fruit even when it is squeezed with considerable force.

Possessing a wonderful taste and a large amount of useful substances, in particular monosaccharides, this product is indispensable in dietary and daily nutrition.

It is used as an ingredient in various culinary dishes, for the preparation of sweets and confectionery.

Eating prunes inhibits the growth of bacteria and can be used to prevent tooth decay and inflammatory gum disease.

It improves the functioning of the digestive tract, normalizes blood pressure, strengthens the nervous system.

How to cook prunes at home:


Prune varieties

Plum variety "Prune", appeared from crossing of two species, thorn and cherry plum participated. The speaking name reveals one of the options for using this stone fruit culture. The taste and composition of the dried fruits correspond to those of prunes. Dried fruit is stored for a long time, can be used in cooking, is a product for dietary nutrition. Gardeners are interested in the variety, not only for its taste, but also for regular high yields, good winter hardiness.

Description of the variety with photo

The trees of this variety are tall. A healthy, mature plant grows up to 4 meters in height. Indicators of productivity, drought resistance, winter hardiness of the Prune variety are high. Bears fruit annually. The plant is self-fertile.

The fruits are large (45 g), round, with a thick, rough peel, bitterish in taste. The peel is difficult to separate from the pulp.

The fruits are deep blue. The pulp is yellow-green with a granular structure, juicy, may contain a small amount of fibers. The bones are large, easy to remove. According to the tasting score, an average score of 4 was given.

The fruits are not damaged during transportation. Plum blanks "Prunes" are of high quality and tasty. The variety does not have any special requirements for the care and composition of the soil.

There is no significant damage caused by frost or wind. Immunity to diseases and pests of plums is high. It is recommended to have other varieties of plums in the garden to obtain a consistently high yield.

The flower buds are large and brown. Shoots are not long (0.5 m), straight. The leaves are corrugated, thick, green above and below. Flowers bloom at the same time as leaves. The fruits ripen late. The yield is not regular.

Advantages of the variety:

  • self-fertility
  • yield
  • winter hardiness
  • drought tolerance
  • wind resistance.

The main value of the Prune variety is to obtain high quality dried fruits during drying and as a product for the production of jam, juice, jam, compote.

Features of growing and care

Plum, loves sun and moisture. You can plant "Prunes" along fences or not far from buildings, but you should receive enough lighting during the day. Trees growing in the shade do not develop well, yield less than required yield, the taste of the fruit deteriorates significantly.

Soil requirements do not differ from the requirements of other varieties of plums:

  • loose
  • with good breathability
  • with a normal acidity level.

Low-lying areas, areas with high groundwater levels, are not suitable for planting.

Planting seedlings should be carried out in the spring. Prepare pits for planting in the fall, after harvesting, clearing the land from weeds and fallen leaves. It is necessary to prepare humus or mature compost, which will be useful when planting. Add at least 2 buckets of organic matter to one plant in the planting hole. The best ratio of earth to humus is 2: 1.

The size of the holes is standard 50 * 70. The planting pattern in the row between the centers of the holes is 3 meters, leave 4 meters for row spacing. On clay soils, holes can be dug deeper than 0.7 m, drainage can be poured on the bottom: crushed stone, small pebbles, expanded clay.

In spring and summer, keep an eye on the soil, there should be no drying out. "Prunes", although a drought-resistant variety, can lose a lot of ovary if the soil is dry during its formation. The root shoot of this variety grows quickly, so in the summer you will have to remove it at least five times, if you do not cut it, the yield is significantly reduced.

Prunes or Plum Plum - Varieties Comparison

Testimonials

There are many positive reviews about the Prune variety, praised mainly for the possibility of obtaining dried fruits and the use of fruits in cooking.

Variety "Prunes", used in the production of food for children, produce puree. Puree is in demand, mothers buy with pleasure, as children eat it with great appetite.

Good reviews about the Prune variety as a product for the production of homemade tinctures.


Plum prunes

Many people love plums - soft, juicy, aromatic. But not every variety of plums is suitable for making prunes, and this should be taken into account when choosing a seedling. In this article, we will look at the so-called dried fruit varieties of plums and find out which plum is used to make the best and most delicious prunes.

The best varieties of plums for prunes

The requirements that are put forward for the fruits of these varieties are as follows:

  • not less than 20% dry matter
  • more than 12% sugar
  • less than 1% water and acid
  • small fruit size
  • weight no more than 30-40 g
  • dense, dark-colored skin, usually dusty
  • small bone.

There are not so many varieties of plum that meet these very specific requirements:

  1. "Hungarian Korneevskaya" has a violet-brown color and sweet flesh. The fruits of these plums ripen in August-September. The tree begins to bear fruit no earlier than 3-4 years after planting.
  2. "Hungarian Italian" has firm pulp and dense skin. The best way is to collect plums not from tree branches, but from the ground. These fruits have reached optimum ripeness for drying prunes.
  3. High-quality prunes are also made from the "Renklod Rososhanskiy" variety. This plum has amber juicy pulp, with a slight sourness. The tree itself is not tall.
  4. "Blue bird" - self-fertile plum, ripens in mid-August. Fruits are medium in size. The variety is resistant to disease and severe winters.
  5. "Adygeisky prune" is a home-made plum variety. And unlike other dried fruit varieties of plum, "Adygeisky Prune" does not meet all the requirements listed above, although it has its own advantages. The fruits of this variety are large, with a large stone. They have a sweet and sour taste and dry well. They ripen late and bear fruit abundantly.

When choosing tree varieties for your garden, keep in mind that it should be a red (purple) plum. It is impossible to get prunes from yellow plums.


Variety characteristics

Prunes are not to be confused with regular blue plums. To get to know the culture better, let's take a look at its characteristics.

Drought resistance, frost resistance

Prunes are considered a frost-resistant variety. Plum easily tolerates drought, but loves watering. In winter, fruit branches rarely freeze.

Plum pollinators Prunes

In terms of ripening, Prunes are classified as mid-late varieties. Flowering begins in spring at the same time as foliage appears. Plum is considered self-fertile, not requiring growth by a number of pollinators.

Productivity and fruiting

The variety is considered to be high yielding. Rare interruptions may occur in fruiting. Many fruits are tied. The tree can shed excess plums.

Scope of berries

The main area of ​​application of Prunes is the production of dried fruits. About 22% of the finished product is obtained from fresh plums. Prunes are usually smoked. Fresh plums are used for conservation, stewed fruit, jam, and tinctures.

Disease and pest resistance

Plum is resistant to all fungal diseases. Pests in the form of aphids, sawflies, scale insects can settle on a tree. Preventive spraying helps prevent crop destruction.

Advantages and disadvantages of the variety

Prunes have the following positive qualities:

  • self-fertile variety can be grown alone without the obligatory planting of a pollinator
  • abundant fruiting, high yield
  • plum adapts to the climatic conditions of the region and is not too demanding on the soil
  • the variety is well resistant to fungal diseases
  • excellent winter hardiness allows you to grow plums in the middle lane, the Leningrad region, Moscow region
  • The culture is drought tolerant.

Of the negative qualities, only the rough skin of the fruit and breaks in fruiting can be distinguished.


Variety of varieties of plums (Prunus) is simply amazing. There are so many plums! And all because they are very healthy and tasty. According to the fruit guide, there are now about 2000 varieties of different plums in the world. Plums have the greatest variety of species and varieties. We are used to the fact that plums are mainly purple, red and yellow, but there are also white and black varieties of plums.

Scientists believe that plums were obtained in a natural way by natural hybridization of cherry plum and blackthorn. And it was somewhere in the Caucasus, from where it was later brought to Asia and spread further around the world.

Plums include red-leaved cherry plums and prickly plums (known as thorns). Among the many varieties of plums there is cherry-like plum, Korean, Sogdian, winter-hardy Ussuri, "cystena", Russian, Japanese, Canadian (or black), sea, steppe. From the type of fruit, it is divided into groups, which are often mistaken for separate botanical species. One of the oldest varieties of plums - "Renklode green". Many others were derived from it.

Popular varieties of plums:

  • Ternoslum
  • Greengage
  • Egg
  • Victoria
  • Mirabel
  • Damascene
  • Black (Canadian)
  • Hungarian

The newest varieties of plums:

  • Eurasia 21
  • Volgograd
  • Morning
  • Smolinka
  • Kantemirovka
  • Blue gift
  • Volga beauty

Most popular modern varieties of plumsgrown all over the world are Blue Tit (English), Ariel (Swedish), Hungarian (Russian).

Plum is a stone fruit crop that grows in the form of a tree up to 8 meters or a bush up to 4 meters. The life span of this plant is about 25 years, and the most productive time is 10-15 years.

Plum can be of very different varieties, colors and shapes.

The most famous varieties of Mirabelle (sweet, dense, with an easily detachable bone, used fresh or during processing)

Variety Hungarian (the fruit is red or dark purple, the pulp is sweet and with a well-separated bone, it is perfectly transported and that is why most often it is from this variety that prunes are made)

Ternosplum also has the name Tern (a small tree or a very small bush with a very large number of berries, does not require maintenance, tolerates cold winters well, suitable for conservation)

And this is just a tiny part of more than 300 varieties of plums.


Why fresh plums are useful

Phenols found in plums and prunes provide effective antioxidant protection

The plant, known as Prunus domestica, both fresh and dried, has repeatedly been the subject of various studies due to its high content of unique phytonutrients called neochlorogenic and chlorogenic acids. Found in plums and prunes, these substances are classified as phenols, which are known for their antioxidant properties. Damage-preventing phenols are especially effective in neutralizing a highly hazardous oxygen radical called superoxide anion radical (O2-).

They also help prevent oxygen damage to fats. Since our cell membranes, brain cells, and molecules such as cholesterol are mostly made up of fats, our bodies need to prevent free radical damage from fats.

Plums and prunes improve the absorption of iron by the body and provide additional antioxidant protection thanks to vitamin C

The ability of plums and prunes to improve the absorption of iron in the body has been confirmed by various studies. This ability of the fruit may be related to the vitamin C it contains. Plum is an excellent source of this vitamin.

Vitamin C is needed by the body to build healthy tissue as well as to strengthen the immune system. It is vitamin C that protects our body from viruses during the cold and flu season, and it can also be useful for people suffering from recurrent ear infections.

Vitamin C also helps protect cholesterol from free radical oxidation. Because oxidized cholesterol builds up in arteries and causes vascular damage, vitamin C is beneficial for people with atherosclerosis or diabetic heart disease.

In addition, it helps neutralize free radicals that can contribute to the development or progression of conditions such as asthma, colon cancer, osteoarthritis, and rheumatoid arthritis. Research has shown that consuming vegetables and fruits high in vitamin C is associated with a reduced risk of death from all causes, including heart disease, stroke, and cancer.

Prunes and Plums Normalize Blood Sugar Levels and Promote Weight Loss

Soluble fiber in prunes helps normalize blood sugar levels by slowing the rate at which food leaves the stomach and delaying the absorption of glucose after a meal.

Soluble fiber also increases insulin sensitivity and therefore may play a useful role in the prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes. Plus, the fiber in prunes gives you a feeling of fullness after a meal, which helps prevent overeating and weight gain.

Fiber in prunes lowers cholesterol and protects the intestines

Prunes are well known for their ability to prevent constipation while lowering the risk of colon cancer and hemorrhoids. Fiber, which is rich in prunes, promotes the growth of beneficial bacteria in the colon. When these bacteria break down fiber, they produce a short-chain fatty acid called butyric acid, which serves as the primary fuel for colon cells and helps maintain colon health. In addition, bacteria create two other short-chain fatty acids, propionic acid and acetic acid, which are used as fuel by liver and muscle cells.

Research has shown that propionic acid inhibits HMG-CoA reductase, an enzyme involved in the liver's production of cholesterol. By decreasing the activity of this enzyme, propionic acid helps lower blood cholesterol levels.

In addition, the soluble fiber in prunes helps lower cholesterol levels by combining with bile acids and removing them from the body through feces. Bile acids are compounds used to digest fats, which are made by the liver from cholesterol. When they are excreted along with the fiber of prunes, the liver begins to produce new bile acids and consume more cholesterol, thereby lowering total cholesterol.

Finally, insoluble fiber feeds friendly bacteria in the digestive tract, which helps maintain their populations. In addition to creating the beneficial short-chain fatty acids described above, beneficial bacteria play an important protective role by displacing pathogenic (disease-causing) bacteria and preventing them from surviving in the intestinal tract.


Benefits and harm to the body

Before looking for information on how to make prunes from plums, you should think about how eating it can affect your health. For example, it is not recommended to eat it for pregnant women, nursing mothers, patients with diabetes mellitus, suffering from urolithiasis and those who have an allergic reaction to plum. Also, prunes are contraindicated for people who have diarrhea.

However, this product is useful in the prevention of constipation and obesity. It also helps to fight excess weight, because it normalizes the work of the gastrointestinal tract. In the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases, these dried fruits are also irreplaceable, because they contain magnesium and potassium. And thanks to the content of fatty acids, they help in the prevention of atherosclerosis.

In addition, moderate consumption of prunes contributes to:
- normalization of the central nervous system
- prevention of anemia, vitamin deficiency, dysbiosis, hypertension
- prevention of rapid aging of the body.

Do-it-yourself dried prunes are healthy and probably the most delicious of all dried fruits. However, it is important to know how to dry it properly and how to store it. So that eating prunes does not cause side effects, you need to know when to stop - to understand how much prunes you can eat per day. Nutritionists recommend - about 6 pieces. This is about 50 grams, which contains 150 calories.


Watch the video: Side Effects Of Prunes


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