Lily species suitable for cold climates

Lilies - a symbol of loyalty and purity

Golden lily

Lilies have been known since ancient times. This flower is considered a symbol of the Virgin Mary, and in many famous paintings she is depicted with a snow-white lily in her hand.

On sale now there are many types of lilies and varieties belonging to different groups. The main thing when choosing a lily for your garden is to pay attention to which of these groups your new acquisition belongs to.

You can often hear the stories of gardeners about poor flowering, and even about the death of lilies. The reason for this is considered by many to be planting material, in fact, it all lies in the wrong place for planting, as well as the acidity of the soil.

Each species has its own preferences, they depend on the conditions of their growth in nature. If we find a place in the garden that is most favorable for the normal development and growth of this particular species, then the plant will thank us with lush flowering and healthy appearance. Consider the climatic conditions of the distribution areas of different species, their requirements for soil conditions, sunlight, air humidity.

Lily white

White lily, or candidum (Lilium candidum). Comes from the eastern regions of the Mediterranean. It is found on stony, limestone or clayey mountain slopes among trees and grasses, therefore this lily prefers loamy soil with good drainage and with the addition of deciduous humus under the roots.

It develops normally only if there is lime in the soil. Necessarily requires a shallow planting - no deeper than 2-3 cm from the top of the bulb. This lily has a dormant period after flowering, so the best time to plant and transplant a white lily is in late August and early September. The bulbs transplanted at this time manage to take root well before the onset of winter.

The plant leaves in winter with a rosette of leaves appearing in early autumn. To preserve these basal leaves, and the bulbs themselves, in our northwestern regions, we need to cover the plantings of this lily for the winter with spruce branches or fern leaves. At the same time, the white lily is not afraid of spring frosts. She has no stem roots, only podlukovichnye. These roots are perennial, so it is necessary to protect them, as well as the bulbs, from drying out and breaking during transportation and planting. This rule applies to all lilies, but especially to white ones.

Lily Henry

Lily Henry (L. Henryi). This lily can only grow if there is lime in the soil, as it comes from the mountainous regions of central China. These provinces are characterized by rainy summers and dry autumns. This lily overwinters in the vicinity of St. Petersburg and in our region without shelter. It reproduces well by seeds and babies.

Lily of David (L. Davidii). In the southwestern provinces of China, it was grown as a vegetable plant. Grows on open mountain slopes on rocky soil with the addition of humus. This is a fairly frost-resistant lily, unpretentious and resistant to viruses.

Long-flowered lily

Longiflorum lily, or longiflorum (L. longiflorum). Found naturally only in Japan. It grows on rocky seashores, in crevices, among forbs, in open sunny places.

When I first got a variety from this group, I made a big mistake - I planted the bulbs next to the Asians. Needless to say, the appearance of the plants for the next summer was not pleasing: pale leaves with "burns" and frail flowers. A special flower bed with a lot of chalk and the addition of compost corrected the situation. Now magnificent specimens amaze everyone with their magnificence of flowers - "gramophones".

Golden lily

Golden lily, or auratum (L. auratum). The birthplace of this beauty is the island of Honshu in Japan. It is most often found on the southern slopes between low shrubs or hard-leaved grasses, so the top of the stem must be in the sun.

Despite the fact that this lily grows in dry, open places, it requires high humidity, especially during the growth period. During flowering, dry and sunny weather is desirable for her. The culture of golden lily is successful on well-rotted sod land with a small amount of leaf humus.

She is quite winter hardy, but light shelter will not hurt. It has long been cultivated in Japan as a vegetable and medicinal plant. Having learned about the predilections of the golden lily, we placed it in our garden on a small hill with good drainage - in a sunny place, but between perennials. There is enough moisture in the Leningrad region, but during flowering, you may have to think about sheltering the plantings from the rain.

Lily martagon

Lily martagon, or curly (L. martagon). All forms of the martagon lily are quite hardy. Young white-flowered bulbs are somewhat more tender; they require light shelter.

This lily reproduces slowly by independent dividing of the bulbs and by basal baby bulbs. Martagons are forest dwellers, so they can grow with significant shade. They prefer moist loamy soils, they are not afraid of the presence of lime.

For an autumn planting or transplant, it will take a year or two to restore normal development. Planting in spring is preferable, but lilies may not bloom in the first summer. We were advised not to touch the bulbs for several years, but to divide the nest of bulbs only when necessary. In short, find a place that looks like a forest - and don't touch it.

Nepalese lily

Nepalese lily (L. nepalense). Its stem is wandering, sometimes reaching 50 cm from the bulb to the surface.

As a result, loosening around the stem must be done very, very carefully. This is also the reason for the formation of a significant number of children, so the species reproduces easily. The homeland of this lily is the Himalayas. Plants are found at the edge of forests, among thickets of bamboo, evergreen rhododendrons and oaks.

The Nepalese lily prefers soil rich in humus. Summer is wet and rainy there, almost like ours, only the Indian winter is very different. I suppose that in our area this lily will not want to winter in the open ground, or rather, will not be able to. You will have to think about strong cover or transferring the plant to the cellar.

Leopard lily

Lily pardalinum (pardalla), or leopard (L. pardallnum). Despite the fact that in nature it grows even in California, it is very hardy, unpretentious, resistant to diseases and pests.

It can be found in areas along the stream, in a swamp, as well as on a mountain slope above 1500 m above sea level. She absolutely does not tolerate dry soils, and in the shade it ceases to bloom. Prefers light loamy soils with peat and leaf humus, does not react to the presence of lime in the soil.

Under normal conditions, this lily multiplies unusually quickly. Each bulb gives annually up to 10 bulbs of growth, therefore, it requires planting them once every three years. Planting and dividing the bulbs should only be done in the fall; the bulbs should be planted to a depth of 8-15 cm, but a deep planting up to 30 cm is also permissible.

Dwarf lily

Lily pumilum, or dwarf (L. pumilum) grows in mountainous and foothill areas, on dry open rocky slopes, between stones, on clay, sandy or gravelly soil.

Its most northern location is noted in the vicinity of the city of Yeniseisk, which means that our frosts are not terrible for it. The bulbs live 3-4 years, so their regular renewal from seeds is necessary (reproduces well).

Lily regale

Lily regale, or royal (L. regale). It is found only in one place - in the valley of the Minjiang River (China). It grows on mountain slopes, so it prefers loamy soils with the obligatory presence of lime. On acidic peaty soils, it becomes shallow and quickly dies.

That is why it is so rare in our gardens. Rotted manure can be applied under the roots. Summers in Sichuan are dry and hot, while winters are cold but with a lot of snow. Therefore, in snowless winters, it is necessary to slightly cover this royal person.

To prevent late spring frosts from damaging the tops of young shoots with buds and leaves, we plant the bulbs of this lily in our garden between low bushes and peonies. Thin stems are not a sign of nutritional deficiencies. So this species has adapted to strong winds blowing in the valleys in places of its natural growth.

Reddish lily

Rubellum, or reddish lily (L.rubellum). These lilies are found in a very small area in the north of Honshu, on the edges of the forest.

Therefore, they need a shallow planting (up to 10 cm) in good sandy soil, rich in leaf humus. Winter on the island is long and cold, summer is hot and rainy, autumn is dry and sunny. According to I. L. Zalivsky, she is not very hardy in the Leningrad region and requires shelter.

Beautiful lily

Lily specialozum, or beautiful (special) (L. speciosum). Under natural conditions, it grows on open sunny slopes of hills and mountains between grasses and low bushes.

It is not surprising to find individual specimens on steep rocks, in pockets with clay soil. Although this species is found in more southern regions of Japan, unlike rubellum lily, its bulbs are quite winter-hardy. Lily spesozum prefers light loamy soils rich in leafy humus.

Irina Plekhanova, florist

Rival of the royal robes

"Solomon, in all his glory, did not dress like any of them."

Margarita Filippovna Kireeva is known to every self-respecting lover of lilies. Its varieties received prizes at the most prestigious exhibition "Expo-90" in Japan, plugging the ubiquitous Dutch into the belt. An immense love for lilies stretched through her entire life. Among other things, she knows how to make charming bouquets and writes graceful poetry ...

The lily has come a long way from time immemorial before finding a worthy place in our gardens. The first known was the snow-white lily (white, candidum), also called the lily of the Madonna. She was used to decorate temples, sculptural and icon-painting images of the Virgin Mary. Snow-white lily grows wild in the countries of the Mediterranean coast. The biblical encyclopedia, published in 1891, says about the lily: “The meadows of Palestine are replete with various fragrant, beautiful plants". The conditions of Central Russia are too harsh for the southern beauty, so here she is a rarity, but in the more southern regions - the North Caucasus and Krasnodar Territory, she succeeds better.

Lily Asiatic Hybrid

© gailf548

On different continents, numerous types of lilies were found, various in appearance and "habits", ranging from the luxurious exquisite lilies of the East (l. Beautiful, l. Golden), ending with the modest, but no less graceful lilies of the Far East, Siberia and Canada (l. brindle, l. drooping, l. canadian, etc.).

Long-term efforts of breeders have led to the formation of a huge assortment of lilies, to an increase in their popularity throughout the world. Currently, there are more than 100 species and about 5,000 varieties included in the International Lily Register. An international classification has been developed. International Variety Registration Center established in London.

The most winter-hardy and easy to cultivate are Asian hybrids. Less winter-hardy and rather demanding on the soil Tubular, but they attract attention with the purity and perfection of the shape of the flower and the wondrous aroma. Basically, these two groups of lilies, but with the predominance of Asiatic, and have become widespread in our gardens. Of course, other groups find a place in them, especially those who tempt Eastern, American, Euro-Caucasian hybrids with their exoticism, but they require increased attention and special care, and often - the creation of a microclimate under film or glass, as well as special soil preparation ...

Lily Snow-white hybrid (Lily Candidum Hybrid)

Asian hybrids owe their winter hardiness to the original species growing in the harsh conditions of Siberia and the Far East - tiger, Daurian, thin-leaved, Sakhalin and others. The peak of their flowering in the open field falls on the first half of July, when there are few flowering plants in the garden: "Tulips have bloomed, delicate peonies have thrown off their magnificent festive outfit, summer has come, and lilies are burning in the green garden, flaming brightly."

They are unmatched in the cut. Very beautiful against the backdrop of shrubs and green lawns in groups or clumps. Their varieties are especially effective with yellow, orange and red flowers next to blue and blue delphinium, blue irises and bells, any white flowers.

In Russia, for the first time, breeding work with lilies began at the end of the last century, IV Michurin, who created the legendary lily Fialkovaya. At the All-Russian Research Institute of Horticulture. IV Michurin by the author of the article, as well as NV Ivanova, NG Korshikova, VV Martynova created more than 100 promising varieties and hybrids. It is a variety of plants in color, shape of flowers and inflorescences, height, flowering time and other characteristics, suitable for growing in open and protected ground throughout Russia.

Lily Kinky hybrid, Martagon hybrid (Lily Martagon Hybrid)

Here are the varieties that have passed many years of testing, selection by VNIIS them. I.V. Michurina:

  • redKalinka, Sibiryachka, Irony, Eastern Tale, Cherry, Bulgaria, Camilla
  • yellowVolkhova, Yellow Bird, Oriole, Orange Relay - Polyushko, Annushka
  • pink and pearl pinkPink Seagull, Michurinskaya Pink, Daughter of Iolanta, Carousel, Ophelia, Rufina, Pink Fantasy, Rotunda, Ksenia, Julia
  • apricot and orangeMlada, Instant, Radiant, Radiant, Lionella, Scherzo, Euphoria
  • white and creamAlibi, Good Morning, Sea Foam, Odette
  • bicolorVirineya, Michurinskaya Oda, Emblem.

In 1997, the varieties Raspberry Ringing and Morning Tumannoye with colors corresponding to the names were allocated to the state test.

Most domestic varieties are bulbous, that is, they have buds (bulbs) on the stems, so they can be propagated so easily and quickly.

Relatively recently, the attention of lily lovers was attracted by "brush marks" - American hybrids with an original contrasting spot at the base of each petal. The literal translation "brushmark" means "brushstroke". In a free translation, this can sound in Russian as "painted". Indeed, the flower stars of the lilies look like they were painted with a brush. Using one of the first American "brushmarks" variety Vanguard as an initial form, we obtained a wide variety of "painted" hybrids, the bulbousness of which was not achieved immediately.

Lily Candidum Hybrid

International classification of hybrid lilies

Section I

  • The Asiatic Hybrids: These are the most numerous varieties. They multiply easily, are unpretentious, frost-resistant. They prefer loose, fertile soils. Flowers are usually odorless, up to 12cm in diameter. They are seated for 4-5 years.

Section II

  • Curly hybrids, The Martagon Hybrids: Unpretentious, frost-resistant varieties. They prefer to grow in partial shade or grow up to 150cm in the shade. The shape of the flower is turbid with strongly curved petals.

Section III

  • Snow-white hybrids, Candidum hybrids (The Candidum Hybrids): Height up to 150cm. with white, wide-funnel-shaped, bell-shaped, fragrant flowers up to 10 cm. in diameter. There are about 30 varieties. Sun-loving, good shelter is required for the winter. They do not tolerate acidic soils.

Section IV

  • American hybrids (The American Hybrids): Up to 120cm high. Graceful flowers with original large specks. They prefer slightly acidic, moist, well-drained soils. They do not tolerate the transplant. Weak winter hardiness.

Section V

  • Longiflorum Hybrids: Up to 120cm high. They are very thermophilic and susceptible to viral diseases. Mainly grown in greenhouses for sale.

Section VI

  • Tubular and Orleans hybrids (The Trumpet Hybrids): Up to 130cm high. They have a strong aroma. They prefer slightly alkaline soils; shelter is required for the winter. For better wintering in the fall, reduce watering.

Section VII

  • Oriental Hybrids (The Oriental Hybrids): Flowers up to 30cm. in diameter. They prefer loose, slightly acidic fertile soils. Frost resistance is weak, therefore, shelter is necessary (mulching with humus layer up to 7 cm. Or fallen leaves up to 20 cm.). Top dressing is applied gradually along with watering.

Section VIII

  • LA-hybrids (LA-Hybrids) - Hardy, light-requiring. Used mainly for year-round forcing in greenhouses.
  • OT-Hybrids - Very fragrant flowers up to 25cm. in diameter. Used for distillation.
  • LO-hybrids (LO-Hybrids) - Flowers are very fragrant. For the winter, the bulbs are dug up.
  • OA-Hybrids are a completely new and promising group resulting from the crossing of Oriental and Aziatic hybrids.

Section IX

  • Species lilies (Wild) and their varieties: A separate classification has been created for them.
Lily Trumpet Hybrid - Orleans hybrid (Lily Trumpet Hybrid)


When group placement of lilies, their different requirements for soil and climatic conditions should be taken into account. Winter-hardy Asian hybrids are planted in one group, and Tubular - in another, since the latter do not like acidic soils, and they will have to be covered for the winter. For planting even more "capricious" Eastern hybrids, the site is prepared separately.

In open sunny places, Tubular and Asian hybrids grow well, the latter also tolerate light shading. All lilies eventually die from stagnant water, so the flooded areas are unsuitable for them.

Considering that lilies remain in one place for 3-5 years, the soil is deeply dug up before planting and 4 to 10 buckets (depending on the quality of the soil) of humus and 50-100 g of a mixture of mineral fertilizers per 1 sq.m. Under Asian hybrids, it is better to apply peat-peat fertilizer, under lilies Tubular, intolerant to an acid reaction, it is good to add wood ash, bone meal or lime 200-500 g per 1 sq.m. With a good pre-planting dressing, the need for dressing disappears for 2-3 years.

In the middle zone of Russia, bulbs are usually planted in September - early October, but spring planting is also possible. If necessary, lilies can be transplanted at any time of the season, even in buds, but at the same time trying to preserve a clod of earth with roots. Before planting, the bulbs are etched with one of the approved fungicides or the groove is powdered.

Planting depth is usually 12-30 cm and depends on the nature of the soil, the size of the bulb, and sometimes on the type of lily. So, the snow-white lily does not tolerate deep planting, its leaves grow from the top of the bulb. The optimal distance between the bulbs is 25-30 cm.

One of the conditions for the successful cultivation of lilies is periodic transplantation to a new location. Typically, every three to four years, overgrown bulb nests are dug up, the bulbs are removed and planted one at a time in fresh soil.

Asian hybrids are easily propagated by bulbs, babies, bulb scales, and bulbous varieties - stem bulbs. Bulbules are removed in August, when they begin to separate easily from the stem, and are planted in a "school" to a depth of 2-3 cm and at a distance of 5-7 cm from one another. In spring, and sometimes in autumn, they germinate. In the first year, a rosette of leaves is formed, in the second, a flower stem is formed, by autumn, a bulb, suitable for planting in a permanent place. To reduce the incidence at the end of the season, after the leaves turn yellow, the faded stems are cut and destroyed.

The better the conditions for the growth of lilies, the healthier they are, the slower they age and the longer they delight us with their magnificent flowering.

Lily Oriental Hybrid - Oriental (Lily Oriental Hybrid)

Materials used:

  • M. Kireeva, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, employee of VNIIS named after I. V. Michurina

With proper care, some subtropical plants can thrive as indoor bonsai too.

  • Buxus (Boxwood) is found on almost every continent. The garden varieties of this plant are very suitable for creating attractive bonsai. The varieties Buxus harlandii and Buxus microphylla have tiny leaves and mature bark, which is consistent with all the principles of bonsai aesthetics.
  • Calliandra haematocephala is an evergreen shrub found in tropical and subtropical regions around the world. This species has small needle-like leaves and flowers that appear in spring and summer. Calliander seeds are available from garden shops.
  • Carmona microphylla (Carmona small-leaved) is an unpretentious plant with a strong trunk and glossy green leaves. Tiny white flowers appear regularly, and the characteristic rough or gnarled bark gives even young bonsai the appearance of a tree of respectable age. This makes Carmona one of the best bonsai for beginners. In addition, the plant lends itself well to forming almost any style of bonsai.
  • Casuarina equisetifolia (Casuarina horsetail) grows up to 25 m in the wild, but with proper care this tree can be grown indoors as a compact bonsai. Although the plant is considered deciduous, its leaves are like needles and can be shaped like spruce or pine.
  • Cupressus macrocarpa (Large cypress or Monterey cypress) is one of the few evergreen conifers that can be grown indoors. The thickness of the trunk is difficult to develop, but the small, juniper-like foliage is suitable even for small bonsai.
  • Feroniella lucida (Feronia lucida, common name - "wooden apple") comes from Southeast Asia. This tree blooms and produces edible fruits. Slow growth, small leaves and rough stem make it very suitable for bonsai.
  • Syzygium paniculatum is a flowering and fruiting evergreen tree with thin leaves. This Australian native grows up to 6 meters in the wild, but can be grown as a bonsai and indoors. Forms well in many styles suitable for deciduous trees.
  • Ulmus parvifolia (Small-leaved elm) is often used as a bonsai outdoors, but it can also be grown indoors.
  • Serissa japonica is a graceful, spectacularly flowering plant with tiny leaves. Indoors it grows up to 40 cm, very suitable for "universal" bonsai.

Most of the plant species that can be used as bonsai "blanks" are supplied to our gardening shops from Holland.

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The best varieties

The best varieties of onions for planting before winter for each specific area are zoned varieties, as well as those that can be sown with nigella, since it tolerates lower temperatures better. Of all the variety, it is better to choose varieties with dense inner scales and a pungent taste. However, this is not necessary, varieties of onions with a softer structure and taste are also suitable.

Among the winter varieties of onion sets and blackies, the following varieties can be distinguished:

  1. Saratoga. An early maturing variety with a semi-sharp taste. Suitable for growing during winter sowing.
  2. Radar. Dutch large-fruited variety, resistant to disease and cold. Recommended for growing on a turnip during winter sowing in an annual culture from seeds.
  3. Zolsky. A variety of semi-sharp taste, winter-hardy in the conditions of the North Caucasian region.
  4. Viking F1. Sweet onion. Recommended for cultivation in winter crops in the southern regions of the country.
  5. Strigunovsky local. Small size, spicy taste, shelf life.
  6. Arzamas local. Small head size, spicy taste, fits perfectly.
  7. Senshui new glob. Large spicy onions intended for long-term storage. Recommended for cultivation in winter crops in the southern regions of the country.
  8. Stuttgarter Riesen. Small in size, has a pungent taste, Well withstands storage.
  9. Echo. A variety of semi-sharp taste. Recommended for growing on a turnip in an annual culture from seeds during winter sowing.

In addition to these varieties, others are suitable for planting onions in the fall before winter, for example, Swift, Bessonovsky local, Muzyka, Electric, Myachkovsky, Zodiac, Lyuty, Siberia, Stansa, Hiberna MS, Ellan.

Colorful african beauty

Ixia belongs to the Iris family (Kosaceae). The flower came to us from southern Africa, where about 50 species of this plant are found. People sometimes call it "sticky" because the juice of Ixia is sticky and sticky. The Latin name Ixia is also associated with the viscosity of the juice - it comes from the Greek word ixios, which means special glue for catching birds.

The plant will bring freshness to the garden. The spike-bearing meadow of Ixia, boiling with flowers, looks phenomenal on sunny summer days, surprising with its beauty.

Ixii create spectacular bushes in the garden, growing up to half a meter. The aerial part develops from a small spherical or oval tuber covered with dry scales. The plant has narrow, sword-like leaves, from which sticky sap flows out if damaged. Above a mass of narrow, lanceolate leaves sway thin, almost invisible stems with star-shaped flowers (up to 20 pieces), collected in ears. Flowers come in different shades. Due to their small size, Ixiae look most beautiful in large groups.

4. Hymenokallis

This native of Peru has many names: hymenocallis, summer / sea / Peruvian daffodil, Nile lily, spider lily. Such an abundance of names is awarded to a fragrant flower with fancy-shaped white-yellow flowers on a long stem without leaves.

Hymenokallis loves sunny, wind-protected areas. When grown in containers, one plant requires a 13 cm pot. This flower also looks great in bouquets.

The most popular varieties of hymenokallis have white flowers: Advance, festalis Zvanenburg, Harrisiana... Decent grade with creamy yellow flowersSalfur Queen.

Martagon hybrids

Because of the graceful flowers, these lily hybrids are also called curly. Their buds "look" downward, the petals curl upward, and the perianth is strewn with dark spots. Unlike Asian hybrids, these lilies exude a fragrance, albeit subtle.

The group of marchagon hybrids includes hardy species of lilies, which almost do not suffer from fungal diseases and are quite frost-resistant. In general, it is not difficult to grow such lilies, but you should know that they grow slowly, and they do not tolerate transplanting well. But the plants are very durable - and this is a significant plus.

The best varieties of marchagon hybrids: Arabian Night (Arabian Knight), Chameleon (Chameleon), Claude Shride (Claude Shride), Guinea Gold (Guinea Gold), Manitoba Fox (Manitoba Fox), Manitoba Morning (Manitoba Moning), Maroon King (Maroon King), Cosmic distances, Valdai bells, Surprise.

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