Chokeberry - growing and care


The blackberry grows in many household plots. It was first bred through long-term selection by the agronomist Michurin. For this, he used a little decorative chokeberry, which grows mainly in the countries of North America along the winding shores of reservoirs, lakes, and also rivers.

Choosing a variety of rowan

Today, chokeberry is very common in our country, as well as among agronomists from near and far abroad, including the USA and Canada. It is a shrub, the growth and diameter of the crown of which, on average, reaches about 3 meters. This plant has a high decorative effect, especially in the autumn.

In autumn, its leaves turn yellow, orange and red with purple reflections. During flowering, the black chokeberry is covered with clusters of inflorescences, consisting of more than 20 snow-white flowers. During fruiting, umbrellas form on the bush, on which large berries of a rich dark blue hue are subsequently formed. It blooms in the same way as the familiar and unknown bird cherry, the beneficial properties of which are known to many.

During fruiting, umbrellas form on the bush, on which large berries are subsequently formed

Chokeberry grows and begins to bear fruit usually very quickly, on average three years after planting. But for this it is important to choose the right planting material. Today there are a huge number of varieties of this fruitful shrub, but from the photo you can see that almost all of them look the same.

Chokeberry of different varieties differs mainly in taste characteristics, benefits for the human body, terms of growth and fruiting, as well as other qualities and properties. To date, agronomists have bred a huge number of varieties, and also continue to select and grow them:

  • Hakkia;
  • Belder;
  • Egert;
  • Aron;
  • Karkhumyaki and others.

There are also numerous varieties that are of mixed origin. These include Erekta, Nero, Rubina, and Black Eyed. When choosing a certain variety, it is better to focus on those that are presented in local nurseries. They are more adapted to the climatic conditions in the existing region, so they can take root well after planting. At the same time, they will need minimal care.

Video clip about the benefits of mountain ash

Rowan planting

Chokeberry is mainly used by owners of summer cottages to form a hedge around a garden or vegetable garden. It is also suitable for strengthening ravines, decorative single or ordinary planting. Growing this shrub is quite simple, as it is not picky about the climate and soil type.

Chokeberry will grow well in soil of normal and even high acidity, in dry sandy soil, as well as in moist loamy soil.

The main thing is to provide good lighting, because otherwise the flowers will not grow well, and there will be very few fruits during the harvesting period. Also, you should not carry out the cultivation of this plant in heavy soils, since in this case there will be few green shoots on the flower buds.

The main thing is to provide good lighting, because otherwise the flowers will grow poorly.

Like most fruit and berry bushes, it is better to plant the black chokeberry in the fall. Another suitable option is early spring before the plant buds. In this case, it can also adapt well. Chokeberry, bred by the agronomist Michurin, will be able to take root well in any type of soil, and even with leaves that have emerged from the buds.

It is necessary to plant the shrub in a hole dug to a depth and diameter of up to 50 cm.In order for the cultivation of black chops to be successful, it is necessary to add a bucket of fertilizer - humus, as well as superphosphate (about 100 g.) And potassium sulfide (about 60 gr.).

The pit is filled with a mixture of fertilizers, after which the seedling is lowered into it. When planting a shrub, the neck of the root must be deepened by 1.5 cm.After that, the seedling should be watered with a bucket of water and a mulching layer should be made of dried earth, sawdust, and a small amount of humus.

After the chokeberry is planted, it is important to cut the shrub up to 4 buds (at a distance of up to 20 cm from the ground). This is a well-known method among agronomists, which gives a good growth of the plant in the following year after planting.

Video story about the benefits and proper cultivation

Reproduction and care of mountain ash

Aronia is a self-pollinating crop, therefore root offspring are most suitable for reproduction.

Aronia is a self-pollinating crop, therefore root offspring are most suitable for reproduction. Over the summer, it can grow in the ground up to 40 cm in height, and also develop a good and viable root system. This will allow it to subsequently be easily transplanted to any suitable place.

Reproduction and cultivation of a fruitful shrub can also be performed using cuttings, seeds, as well as layering, dividing the bush and grafting. But to ensure good survival, it is important to follow a few rules:

  • when propagating blackberries with seeds, they must be sown in mid-autumn. In winter, they will undergo a natural process of stratification, which will ensure their high germination capacity. Seeds are sown into the ground to a depth of no more than 2 cm. But when they are planted in early spring, they must go through a preliminary process of stratification at a temperature of more than 5 degrees for 3-4 months;
  • when inoculating, a stock of ordinary mountain ash is taken (you can also use a hawthorn or a pear). You can inoculate by the bark of a tree or by splitting;
  • rhizome offspring are cut off to 4 buds when planting.

After planting and survival of the shrub, it is important to provide the plant with thorough care, which will ensure a good harvest with large, juicy and sweet berries. For example, in the dry summer period, chokeberry needs additional watering during the period of fruit set.

Caring for fruiting shrubs does not require fertilizing it with fertilizers, except for the planting period. Otherwise, this can lead to the formation of voluminous foliage and shrub crowns, but the yield will be small and the resistance in winter will also significantly decrease.

If during planting organic and mineral fertilizers were introduced into the planting pit, then care and feeding may not be carried out for the next two years.

When the shrub reaches 5 years of age, you can add a small amount of organic fertilizers under the trunk, as well as ammonium nitrate.

Caring for the shrub also consists in carrying out regular weeding of the soil, pruning and forming a beautiful crown of the bush, combating possible pests and diseases, as well as protecting the crop from birds.

Planting and leaving video

Rowan pruning

Chokeberry care includes the need for regular pruning.

Chokeberry care includes the need for regular pruning, which is usually done in the fall. But the first strong cut of up to four healthy buds is carried out during the planting period, which ensures a good growth of the fruiting shrub.

In the second year, pruning is carried out to create skeletal branches in a young plant (their number will be about 11-13). For proper growth, you also need to prune thickening branches annually. You can shorten the shoots after they finish blooming. This will correct the shape of the crown.

Upon reaching the age of 7, the branches of the fruiting shrub are cut out, only strong, strong and young shoots remain. This is necessary to replace old branches with new ones, which improves the appearance and fruiting of the blackberry. After the chokeberry reaches 10 years of age, it can be pruned to the ground in order to rejuvenate the shrub.

Harvesting is carried out in the summer-autumn period - from August to October, but it is better to do this before the onset of the first frost.

In order not to damage the plant, the berries must be cut with scissors, which will increase the duration of their storage. After that, you can string it on a wire and place it in a dark, cool place.

Planting instruction roller

Blackberry fruits can be used to prepare various dishes and drinks, as well as freeze, puree or dry. If you prefer the latter option, then you can find out useful information about this from the article on how to dry chokeberry at home.

Chokeberry is a popular and beloved plant in our country that produces tasty fruits with a sweet and slightly tart taste. Any person can grow it on their own plot on their own, but only subject to the basic rules of planting, pruning and care.


Chokeberry: autumn is the time for planting chokeberry

Aronia or black chokeberry is an unpretentious and winter-hardy plant that is best planted in the fall.

It is better to plant black chokeberry or black chokeberry in the fall, so it will take root better and give a harvest the next year.

The best varieties of chokeberry for planting in the country

Danish variety: Aron

Finnish varieties: Ahonnen, Belder, Diamond, Viking, Karkhumaki, Hakkia

Polish varieties:Galitsianka, Dabrovice, Kutno, Nova Ves, Egerta

chokeberry varieties of mixed origin: Grandifolia, Altai large-fruited, Zerina, Macrophylla, Nero, Autumn Magic, Pumila, Rubina, Hugin, Black-eyed, Chokeberry, Elata, Erekta, Estland.

Place for planting blackberry

It is not difficult to choose a place for planting blackberries, since any soils, except saline ones, are suitable for it. The bulk of the roots is within the projection of the crown at a depth of 50 cm, so it is quite tolerant of the close standing of groundwater.

The distance between plants should be at least 2 m so that the bushes do not shade each other... The size of the planting pits is 60 x 60 cm, the depth is 40–45 cm.

Planting mixture for chokeberry is prepared by mixing the top layer of earth with 1-2 buckets of humus, compost or peat, add 150 g of superphosphate and 60-70 g of potassium sulfate. The root collar is deepened by 1–1.5 cm. It is recommended to cut the seedlings immediately after planting, leaving stumps 15–20 cm high with 4–5 buds.

the development of chokeberry or chokeberry

In the first two years after planting, chokeberry is fed with ammonium nitrate (50 g per pit). From the age of five, 1-1.5 buckets of humus or compost, up to 70 g of superphosphate and up to 30 g of potassium sulfate are introduced into the trunk circles. The soil under the black chokeberry is kept in a sufficiently moist state - this is a necessary condition for a bountiful harvest.

Post-planting care: when to start pruning chokeberry

Starting from the seventh to eighth year of fruiting, the crown of the chokeberry must be thinned out. In old, neglected plantings, rejuvenating pruning is done, cutting off all the shoots to the level of the soil. This stimulates the growth of coarse shoots, of which no more than ten of the most developed are left.

Reproduction of chokeberry

Aronia is very easy to propagate. Good results are obtained with the autumn sowing of seeds in the ground.

When the black chokeberry is propagated by horizontal layers in autumn or spring, the basal shoots are bent and pinned to the ground in shallow grooves (5–6 cm). When vertical shoots with a height of 8–10 cm are formed, they are covered with soil half the height, as soon as they grow up to 18–20 cm, the action is repeated.

fruits and seeds of chokeberry - chokeberry

Cheap and high-quality planting material is obtained with green cuttings, but for this you need to build the simplest
greenhouse and provide constant humidity and shading in it.

Grafting with a cuttings is more difficult. Rowan is usually used as a stock.


Composition and benefits of chokeberry berries

It is chokeberry fruits that have a large number of useful properties due to their high content of various substances that can strengthen human health:

  • The color of rowan berries depends on the content of anthocyanins in them, the amount of which is so high that the fruits are saturated with blackness. The substance perfectly repels pests, protecting the plant itself from them. Although all black berries are the strongest antioxidants, the black chokeberry is superior in this regard, you can find caffeic acid, quercetin, epicatechin and many other substances that are the strongest flavonoids in it. Due to this composition, many diseases associated with oxidative stress can be prevented by consuming rowan berries.
  • Black fruits contain a large amount of vitamins of group B, A, C, P, only they contain so much routine that exceeds its amount in citrus fruits twenty times. A few berries a day - and a person remains young for a long time, with a strong immune system.
  • In addition to vitamins, the plant supplies our body with calcium, iron, molybdenum, iodine, phosphorus, potassium.
  • Among the sugars in chokeberry berries, fructose predominates, and glucose, sucrose is somewhat less. The astringent quality of black berries is associated with tannins, pectins in their composition.
  • Of the fruit acids, malic acid prevails in it, the content of which exceeds one and a half percent, and citric acid.

Aronia berries are not only pleasant to use in compotes, preserves, jams, fresh, but they can also cure some serious ailments.


Planting lilacs, growing and care

Landing

Do not buy lilac seedlings (or any other plants) off the road, ‘hand-held’ from grandmothers. Even if the bush takes root, then it may not be varietal at all, and there will be no one to make claims to. There are many good nurseries and it is better not to be lazy and drive there. Then you will acquire not only a real varietal seedling, but also a lot of tips for caring for it.

If you have enough space, then it is better to plant lilacs with several bushes nearby. Blooming, they look much more spectacular.

Lilac is a shrub that can tolerate temporary shade.

A good time to plant lilacs is right after flowering. The fact is that her buds wake up very, very early, even before the snow melts. Therefore, in the spring, it is better not to touch the lilac.

Dig the planting hole with a depth and width of about 60 cm, n. At the bottom, arrange drainage, for example from rubble. Or you can just fill in 3 shovels of sand. For one bush, you need to add 1-2 buckets of compost and 3-4 tbsp. l. complete mineral fertilizer. Mix the fertilizer with the soil.

Do not allow the soil under the bush to be too dense and wet, loosen it with a pitchfork or add sand, sawdust.

The bushes are fed in the spring with nitrogen-containing fertilizers and then with phosphorus-potassium fertilizers. Lilac responds very well to the introduction of ash: you can sprinkle it around the bush or stir a glass of ash in 10 liters of water.

For varietal lilacs, care can be slightly more varied. For lush flowering, it is necessary to increase the fertility of the soil, additionally introducing rotted manure. Fertilize 3 times per season and do not forget about watering, especially in dry summers. And it is better to plant such lilacs not in the shade.

Pruning

Do pruning only a year after planting and immediately after flowering, so that new shoots have time to ripen by winter. Cut a large and old bush in stages, in 2-3 years, then the plant will not receive severe stress and will not get sick.Lilac pruning is mainly formative, since this shrub is able to withstand severe frosts and is practically not susceptible to diseases. When pruning, leave the strongest and thickest shoots, they will form the crown of the bush in the future.

Lilac is not afraid when its tassels are broken into bouquets - this makes it bloom even thicker.

After flowering, the lilac bush will delight you with its green leaves for a long time.

Lilacs multiply easily. One of the easiest ways to root suckers. But you can also try layering. To do this, you must choose the most flexible and closest to the ground.
And I got accustomed to the lilac from the twig, which was accidentally mowed with a trimmer. I just stuck it in the ground next to it.

Helpful advice

Planting and caring for lilacs will not take you much time, so it can be used as a hedge, but this is provided that your plot is not 6 acres. After all, lilac grows roots up to 20 meters in a circle, and it can take food from other plants planted nearby.


How to care

The prevalence and unpretentiousness of chokeberry will allow you to purchase a seedling in almost any region. This will help to grow a shrub without unnecessary trouble, but for better fruiting and long life, you need to know the main requirements for further care.

  • Active watering... The plant tolerates drought well, but bears fruit better only with sufficient moisture. The root system is located very close to the surface, therefore, the chokeberry is not able to independently obtain water. It is also worth learning more about how to breed chicken manure for watering.

Loosening of the soil in the root area is possible only shallowly - up to 10 centimeters. In the aisles, you can dig up the earth, but directly under the crown it will damage the plant.

Top dressing is required three times per season.... You can use standard garden complexes, as well as wood ash and organic matter (preferably used on plants over five years old). In the first two years after planting, the plant does not need to be fertilized, it has enough nutrients introduced into the hole. But how to feed chicken manure, and how effective this tool is, is indicated here.

  • At about the seventh year of life, it is necessary to conduct an audit and anti-aging pruning of branches. For this, all old and dry branches are removed, as well as those on which the berries have become too small or sour. Of the total, it is necessary to leave no more than 20 - 25 young branches, which will form the crown of the plant in the future. By clicking on the link, you can learn more about how the pruning of garden blackberries occurs in the spring.
  • Sanitary pruning of shoots is carried out as needed... Aronia is capable of releasing more than 10 basal shoots per season, which significantly depletes the plant and affects the quality of the crop. For further reproduction, it is better to leave no more than two of the strongest shoots, cut off the rest directly from the rhizome itself, digging a little into the ground. It will also be helpful to learn about how the apple tree is pruned during flowering.
  • Chokeberry is a good "field" for all kinds of experiments. The seedling perfectly tolerates vaccinations and can serve as a rootstock for some varieties of garden rowan. But it happens that all kinds of pests appear, in which case it is worth using celandine from aphids on trees.
  • Reproduction is possible by seeds, cuttings and cuttings.
  • The video shows how to care for chokeberry:

    Chokeberry is an unpretentious and very unusual garden plant. It is distinguished by its neat appearance, beautiful flowering and wilting of leaves, as well as amazing vitality.

    A special word should be said about the fruits of chokeberry. They are very valuable and useful, used in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases, diabetes and hypertension.

    In addition, they retain their beneficial properties even during heat treatment, which makes home preservation a real and very tasty medicine. The features of cultivation, as well as the algorithm for planting chokeberry, are detailed in the information of our article.


    Chokeberry (Rowan) Chokeberry: Planting And Care, Pruning And Reproduction

    Chokeberry, or chokeberry (lat.Aronia melanocarpa) - a fruit shrub or tree belonging to the Aronia species of the Pink family. The name of the plant, translated from Greek, means help, benefit. The chokeberry comes from eastern North America, where it grows along the shores of lakes and rivers. In total, up to 20 species of chokeberry can be found in North America. In Europe, chokeberry was grown as an ornamental plant, but in the 19th century Michurin discovered that it was unpretentious and suitable for breeding, and as a result, chokeberry grows literally everywhere today. Despite the fact that chokeberry is otherwise called black chokeberry, it has very little in common with the common mountain ash plant - they are united only by the fact that both of them belong to the Pink family.

    The chokeberry plant is a winter-hardy deciduous strongly branching shrub about 3 m high with a root system located close to the surface. At a young age, the crown of the plant is compact, but over the years it can reach a diameter of 2 m. Young shoots have a reddish-brown tint, but gradually become dark gray. Aronia leaves are simple, whole, elliptical, 4 to 8 cm long, 3 to 5 cm wide, alternate, with crenate-toothed edges. The chokeberry leaf on the upper side of the plate is leathery, shiny, dark green in color, and its underside is whitish due to pubescence. In the second half of September, rowan leaves begin to acquire purple-red tones. White or pinkish fragrant chokeberry flowers with purple anthers, collected in dense corymbose inflorescences, open in the second half of May or early June. The shiny spherical fruits of black or purple-black ashberry with a bluish bloom ripen in August or September. The weight of the wild-growing chokeberry fruit does not exceed one and a half grams, the cultivated chokeberry fruit is larger. Aronia berries ripen in August or September.

    Chokeberry is grown as a fruit, medicinal and ornamental plant. She is a relative of such garden crops as apple, pear, plum, bird cherry, cherry plum, quince, apricot, peach, nectarine, almond, rosehip, hawthorn, cherry and sweet cherry, with which she is united by belonging to the same family. We will tell you how planting and caring for chokeberry in the garden is carried out, in what ways it is propagated, which varieties of chokeberry can be grown in the southern area, and which are more suitable for the middle lane, what are the benefits of chokeberry and what can be harmful to chokeberry ...

    When to plant chokeberry.

    Like almost all fruit and berry plants, chokeberry is best planted in the fall - at the end of September or early November, although it takes root well after the spring planting, carried out until the end of April. This culture is undemanding to the composition of the soil - it grows well even on acidic or dry sandy soils. Only saline soils are not suitable for her. If we talk about preferences, then it blooms and bears fruit best in well-lit areas with neutral, moist loamy soil. Since the root system of the chokeberry is located at a depth of only 50-60 cm from the surface of the site, the close occurrence of groundwater will not harm it. Most often, chokeberry is planted as a hedge.

    Planting chokeberry in the spring.

    How to choose healthy chokeberry seedlings? When buying chokeberry seedlings, first of all, pay attention to the condition of their roots - they must be strong, healthy and have 2-3 branches at least 25-30 cm long.If the roots look dry and weathered, they may not take root or the seedling will hurt for a long time ... The roots of such a seedling must be kept in water for 2-3 days before planting so that they are saturated with moisture and restore elasticity. If the inner side of the bark of the seedling is green, then the seedling is alive, but if it is brown, do not buy it - it will most likely not take root.

    Before planting, cut off diseased, broken and dry roots and shoots on the seedling, then lower the root system in a clay mash.

    Chokeberry is planted on a cloudy day or in the evening. If you are planting chokeberry as a separate plant, place it from other shrubs and trees at a distance of at least 3 m - this way the mountain ash will receive uniform illumination, and it will be convenient for you to care for the bush. The depth and diameter of the planting pit should be about 50 cm.The infertile layer of the soil removed during the excavation of the pit is mixed with a bucket of humus, 300 g of wood ash, 150 g of superphosphate and the pit is filled with this mixture to a third of the depth, after which the pit is filled up to half the volume with soil from the upper , a fertile layer and pour a bucket of water into it. When the water is absorbed, a seedling with roots treated with a clay mash is placed in the center of the hole so that the root collar is 1.5-2 cm underground.Carefully spread the roots of the seedling, fill the hole with fertile soil, lightly tamp the surface and water the seedling again with the same amount of water, and when it is absorbed, mulch the near-stem circle with a layer of straw, peat or humus 5-10 cm thick. After planting, shorten the shoots of the seedling to 15-20 cm, leaving four to five buds on them.

    Planting chokeberry in the fall.

    Performing an autumn planting of chokeberry is no different from the spring procedure. Why do experienced gardeners prefer to plant chokeberry in the fall? Because during the winter, the soil around the seedlings settles and compresses, and the chokeberry quickly grows in the spring.

    Chokeberry in spring.

    Planting and caring for chokeberry does not contain any subtleties that should be written about. Spring work with shrubs begins in late March or early April: at this time, sanitary and formative pruning is carried out and the stems are treated with lime. In April, chokeberry is sprayed from pests and pathogens that have successfully overwintered in cracks in the bark or in the soil under bushes. In May, when weeds begin to appear from the ground, be vigilant and do not let them come into force - remove immediately.

    In the spring, chokeberry is fed with nitrogen fertilizers.

    Chokeberry care in summer.

    Caring for black chokeberry in the summer, when insect pests appear en masse, requires attention: it is very important to monitor the health of the garden by regularly examining the plants so as not to miss the onset of the disease or the appearance of harmful insects. At the first symptoms of pest or disease damage, treat chokeberry with appropriate formulations - folk remedies or chemicals.

    Despite the fact that chokeberry is drought-resistant, in a dry, hot summer, it needs watering, after which it is convenient to loosen and weed the site.

    How to care for chokeberry in the fall.

    Chokeberry fruits ripen by the end of August, but they need to be harvested only after the first frost. In the fall, chokeberry is planted and its seedlings are taken care of, which must be prepared for winter. With the onset of a dormant period, chokeberry is subjected to sanitary pruning and processing from pests and pathogens that have settled in the bark of a tree and the soil under bushes for the winter. Young bushes huddle high, and the trunk circle is covered with dry leaves or spruce branches. Adult plants hibernate without shelter.

    Aronia processing.

    Growing chokeberry and caring for it involves carrying out preventive treatments against pests and diseases. They are carried out in early spring, before bud break: the bush is sprayed with one percent Bordeaux liquid. In the fall, after the fall of leaves, the autumn preventive treatment of chokeberry is carried out using the same drug or the like for it. Instead of Bordeaux mixture, you can treat it with a 7% urea solution - in this way you will take preventive measures and feed the shrub with nitrogen fertilizer.

    Watering chokeberry.

    For chokeberry, watering is very important at the beginning of the growing season, especially in the heat in the absence of rain. The next important period for chokeberry from this point of view is the beginning of fruit formation. Calculation of water - 2-3 buckets for each bush, depending on the age of the plant. Watering is carried out in furrows made around the bushes at a distance of 30-40 cm from the crown projection.

    After moistening the soil, it is convenient to loosen the soil in the trunk circle and remove weeds. The first time the soil around the bushes is loosened in early spring, then during the summer another 4-5 loosening is carried out to a depth of 6-8 cm. It is very important to loosen the soil around the chokeberry bushes after harvesting, and then mulch the area with peat, manure or compost.

    Top dressing of black chokeberry.

    In order to get a good harvest, chokeberry must be fed regularly. On rich, fertile soils, it is enough to add 50 g of ammonium nitrate under each bush in the spring and mulch the trunk circle with organic fertilizer - manure, compost or humus. If the soil is poor, then after spring feeding, at the beginning of summer, under each bush, you need to pour a bucket of mullein diluted with water in a ratio of 1: 5, or a bucket of bird droppings solution at the rate of 1 part of fertilizer to 10 parts of water. In the fall, after harvesting, under each chokeberry bush, you need to add half a liter of wood ash and 100 g of superphosphate.

    When to cut the chokeberry.

    If the chokeberry is not cut off, then it will expand in breadth and stretch upward, fruiting will move to the periphery, illuminated by the sun, and a barren jungle will form in the middle of the bush. To prevent this from happening, you need to regulate the number of branches and the height of the bush. All work on pruning chokeberry should be carried out in the spring.

    Pruning chokeberry in spring.

    Chokeberry seedlings, as we already wrote, in the first spring are cut at a height of 15-20 cm.After a year, leave a few strong branches from the emerging growth and level all the shoots in height, and cut the remaining growth at the base. After a year, add a few more branches from the undergrowth to the bush and carry out an equalizing pruning. Add several branches from the undergrowth annually until there are about ten of them, and then we can assume that the chokeberry bush is formed.

    Now you need to make sure that the shoots do not grow too densely - the light must penetrate into the very thick of the bush, otherwise flower buds will not be laid there, and therefore the fruits will not be tied. For this, a thinning pruning of chokeberry is carried out, combined with a sanitary one for the purpose - competing, low-value, growing inside the crown, as well as diseased, broken and dry shoots are removed from the plant.

    In chokeberry aronia, branches younger than 8 years old are considered fruitful, and as soon as some branch reaches this age, it must be cut out, and instead a developed shoot from the root growth should be left. Try to carry out 2-3 replacements annually, without increasing the diameter of the base of the bush. You need to cut or saw down old branches as close to the ground as possible so that pests or pathogens do not settle in the remaining stumps.

    When the whole bush seems old and tired to you, carry out a radical rejuvenating pruning - cut off all the branches, regardless of their age, and when young growth appears in the place of the old bush, start forming a new bush from it. You already know how to do this.

    Pruning chokeberry in the fall.

    If absolutely necessary, you can carry out a sanitary pruning of chokeberry in the fall, if it turns out that after harvesting, broken branches appeared, or you find shoots affected by pests.In this state, of course, the bush cannot be left for the winter. Thickening shoots can be removed in summer so that the plant does not waste energy on feeding unnecessary branches. But rejuvenating and formative pruning is carried out only in the spring. Do not forget to process the cuts of thick branches with garden pitch.

    How to propagate chokeberry.

    Reproduction of chokeberry occurs by generative (seeds) and vegetative methods - layering, cuttings - green and lignified, dividing the bush, root suckers and grafting. Most often, the seed propagation method of black chokeberry and green cuttings are used.

    Chokeberry propagation by cuttings.

    For the reproduction of chokeberry woody cuttings, one-year, well-ripened shoots from two to four-year branches are needed. They are cut in the fall, in the second half of September, so that they have time to take root before the frost and winter well. Cuttings should have 5-6 eyes, 15-20 cm long. Do not use the upper, unripe part of the shoot for propagation. The upper cut on the handle is made oblique to the kidney, and the lower cut is straight, under the very eye. Cuttings are planted at an angle of 45 º at a distance of 10-12 cm from each other, leaving only two buds above the surface, the lower of which should be at the level of the surface. The soil around the cuttings is squeezed, watered and mulched with peat.

    Reproduction of black chokeberry by green cuttings is possible only if there is a cold greenhouse, which is not difficult to build. In a greenhouse, a layer of coarse washed river sand with a thickness of 7-10 cm is laid on the dug clean soil.

    Cuttings are cut from healthy bushes - you can cut off the tops of any branches of the bush. The length of the cutting is 10-15 cm. The lower leaves are removed from the cuttings, and 2-3 upper leaves are shortened, leaving only one third of each. A longitudinal incision is made above each kidney; several such incisions are made on the bark in the lower part of the cutting. Then the cuttings are immersed with their lower ends in a solution of a root formation stimulator for 6-12 hours, after which they are washed with clean water and planted in a greenhouse - obliquely, at a distance of 3-4 cm from each other. After compaction of the soil around the cuttings, they are watered through a fine sieve and covered with a transparent dome. There should be a space of at least 20 cm between the dome and the cuttings. Cuttings take root at a temperature of about 20 ºC, and if it rises to 25 ºC, it is necessary to arrange airing with the cuttings. With regular moistening of the soil and maintaining the desired temperature and air humidity, the cuttings will take root within 3-4 weeks, after which you can begin hardening procedures, and after a week and a half, the cuttings are planted in open ground for growing. The survival rate of green cuttings is 70-100%. As soon as the cuttings are taken in the open field, feed them with a solution of 30 g of ammonium nitrate in a bucket of water or a weak solution of slurry. Caring for cuttings in the garden consists of regular watering, loosening the soil and removing weeds. Chokeberry seedlings are planted in a permanent place in a year, next fall.

    Seed reproduction of chokeberry.

    To get chokeberry seeds, you need to rub the ripe fruits through a sieve, then lower the seeds into water so that the pulp floats up, rinse and, mixing the seeds with calcined river sand in a ratio of 1: 3, put them wet for 90 days in a vegetable refrigerator box for stratification. Remember to keep the sand moist at all times. If the seeds begin to hatch earlier than they can be sown outdoors, the temperature should be lowered to 0 ºC. When the soil in the garden is ready for sowing seeds, make grooves 6-8 cm deep in it, sow the seeds that have grown in them, seal and mulch the bed with sawdust or humus. When two true leaves form at the seedlings, they are thinned out, leaving a distance of 3 cm between the seedlings. The next thinning by a step of 6 cm is done at the stage of development at the seedlings of 4-5 leaves. The last time you need to thin out the seedlings at a distance of 10 cm next spring. All this time, the garden is watered, the soil is loosened on it, weeds are removed and once in the spring they fertilize with slurry. Seedlings are ready for transplanting to a permanent place by the fall of the second year.

    Chokeberry propagation by root suckers.

    Every year, root shoots grow around the chokeberry bush. The number of offspring formed depends on the variety of chokeberry, the presence of nutrients and moisture in the soil. In a year, the offspring form a root system, and they can be cut off from the mother plant with a shovel and transplanted to a new place. Before transplanting, the offspring shoot is shortened to 2-3 buds.

    Black chokeberry propagation by layering.

    Chokeberry can be propagated by arcuate or horizontal layering. To do this, in the spring, they dig up the soil under the bush, choose well-developed one-year or two-year shoots with strong growths as a layering, dig grooves under them, put shoots in them, fix them in the furrows, and pinch the tops remaining on the surface. They take care of the layers of chokeberry, as for any others: they water, carefully loosen the soil around them, remove weeds. When the shoots that have developed from the buds of the cuttings reach 10-12 cm in height, they are sprinkled up to half with moist soil or humus, after 2-3 weeks, when the shoots once again grow to such a height, the procedure is repeated. In autumn, and even better next spring, the layers are separated from the bush and transplanted to a permanent place.

    Reproduction of chokeberry by dividing the bush.

    This method is justified in the event that you have to transplant the chokeberry bush to another place. In the spring, before the start of sap flow, a rowan bush is dug out, all old branches are removed from it, the root system is cleaned of soil and divided with a pruner or an ax into the required number of parts, each of which should have developed young roots and 2-3 healthy, strong shoots. The cuts on the roots are sprinkled with crushed charcoal, after which the cuttings are seated in the designated places.

    Chokeberry propagation by grafting.

    It is best to use a rowan seedling as a stock. The rootstock is wiped from dust and cut at a height of 12 cm from the surface level, after which a deep split is made in the cut through the center. The cuttings are cut from both sides in such a way that a wedge is formed, which must completely enter the rootstock split. After the scion enters the cleft, treat the scion and rootstock sections with a garden pitch and wrap the grafting site with budding film. Put a strong plastic bag on the seedling and fix it tightly below the graft site - this way you will create the greenhouse effect necessary for the growth of the scion and rootstock. It will be possible to remove the package in a month.

    It is best to vaccinate in the spring, when sap flow begins.

    Among the diseases that affect chokeberry, gardeners most often have to deal with the following:

    Peripheral wood rot, caused by mushrooms honey agarics. Disease control is carried out with one percent Bordeaux liquid or another fungicide. Severely affected bushes are subject to destruction, for which they are dug out by the roots and burned.

    Fruit rot, or moniliosis, from which the berries become soft, turn pale and mummified, and light brown spore-bearing pads appear on their surface. Affected berries, if not removed from the bush, can hang on the branches all winter and in the spring infect young flowers and chokeberry ovaries with moniliosis. As soon as you find the disease, treat the bush with copper oxychloride or the same Bordeaux mixture.

    Septoria spot appearing on the leaves of chokeberry in the middle of summer in light brown oval spots with a darker border. As the disease progresses, the tissue inside the spots dries up, cracks and falls out. As a preventive measure, in addition to the spring and autumn treatment of chokeberry with Bordeaux liquid, it is necessary to collect and burn fallen leaves. If a disease is detected, the bush and the soil under it are treated with Abiga peak or copper oxychloride.

    Grebenshik - a fungal disease that occurs on a plant weakened by root rot. The fungus looks like thin leathery brownish-gray or whitish plates. The branches affected by the fungus must be cut and burned. As a preventive measure, the bush is treated in spring and autumn with a Bordeaux mixture, Abiga peak or copper oxychloride.

    In addition to the diseases described, diseases such as bacterial necrosis or bark cancer, brown spot, verticillus, rust and viral ring spot are affected by chokeberry.

    Pests affecting chokeberry bushes include:

    Brown fruit and red apple mites - small insects that can seriously harm not only chokeberry, but also such fruit crops as pear, plum, cherry and apple tree. Their larvae, appearing after the flowering of chokeberry in large numbers, feed on the sap of the leaves, making punctures in them. After three weeks, the larvae turn into adults, ready to lay the larvae on the plant again - several generations of ticks develop in one season. To cope with the infestation of ticks, drugs Karbofos, colloidal sulfur, Tedion, Cydial, Kleschevit and the like will help you, which need to be alternated, since the tick's body is able to develop immunity against them.

    Green apple aphid - a small sucking insect, from which young seedlings often suffer. In addition to the fact that it feeds on the sap of the plant, weakening it, aphids, like ticks, are a carrier of incurable viral diseases. A preventive measure against aphids is the treatment of chokeberry before bud break with Bordeaux liquid, Nitrafen, Karbofos, and if insects are found on the plant, it will be necessary to spray the chokeberry with Decis, Metaphos, Biotlin, Ambush, Cyanox or the like.

    Hawthorn - the caterpillars of this butterfly eat up the buds during their blooming, then they damage the flowers and leaves of the chokeberry, leaving only streaks from them. To protect the chokeberry from the invasion of these pests - and the hawthorn can lay up to 500 eggs at a time - in early spring, before the buds open, the mountain ash is treated with a Bordeaux mixture, Oleocubrite or Nitrafen. Before flowering, chokeberry is sprayed with Zolon, Karbofos or Chlorophos.

    Rowan moth - the caterpillars of this insect eat up the fruits of mountain ash, which is why they become covered with dark spots and are bitter. This pest affects not only the chokeberry, but also the mountain ash, and in some years even the fruits of the apple tree. The methods of dealing with the mountain ash moth are the same as with the hawthorn.

    Cherry slimy sawfly - a black insect with a shiny abdomen and transparent wings. It appears on the chokeberry at the beginning of July and before the beginning of autumn it has time to severely damage the leaves of the plant. The female sawfly lives no more than a week, but during this time she manages to lay up to 75 eggs under the lower skin of the leaves. The larvae that appear eat the leaves, leaving only a net of veins from them. Sawflies are destroyed by treating chokeberry with 20-30 g of Chlorophos dissolved in a bucket of water. Spraying rowan with a solution of soda ash or lime can cope with the sawfly.

    There are many varieties of chokeberry. Among them there are excellent domestic and foreign varieties of chokeberry that have proven themselves well in our culture, many of which, in addition to excellent fruiting, are also distinguished by high decorative qualities. The best ones include:

    • Nero - frost-resistant and shade-tolerant variety of German selection with shiny dark green leaves, which turn yellow-red in autumn. The berries of this variety, collected in bunches, are very large, sometimes twice as large as those of other chokeberries. They are also high in vitamins, minerals and antioxidants.
    • Viking - a high-yielding and frost-resistant Finnish selection of chokeberry with shiny green leaves and the same shiny fruits, larger than black currant berries
    • Black-eyed - an unpretentious and very resistant to diseases and pests frost-resistant variety, which is also an excellent honey plant. Its berries, reaching a diameter of 1 cm, are distinguished by a reduced berry astringency in comparison with other varieties.
    • Hugin - a winter-hardy and highly decorative variety of Swedish selection, which must be pruned with great care. Hugin's bush reaches a height of 2 m, its leaves in spring and summer are dark green and shiny, in autumn they acquire a bright red color. The berries are large, black and shiny.

    In addition to those described, Finnish varieties of chokeberry Hakkia, Belder and Karkhumyaki, Danish variety Aron, Polish varieties Egerta, Dabrovice, Galitsianka, Kutno, Nova ves, Belarusian varieties of Nadzeya and Venisa, and Russian varieties of chokeberry Sibirskaya and Michurina are popular.

    The medicinal properties of chokeberry.

    What is the use of chokeberry for the human body? Aronia is a real treasure trove of nutrients. It contains beta-carotene, vitamins P, K, C, E, B1, B2, B6, macro- and microelements manganese, boron, fluorine, iron, iodine, molybdenum and copper, sugars, pectins and tannins. Chokeberry fruit contains twenty times more vitamin P than oranges and twice as much as black currant. A balanced combination of biological substances in chokeberry berries enhances their healing properties.

    Fresh chokeberry berries and juice from them are used not only for treatment, but also for the prevention of atherosclerosis and hypertension, since they have vasodilating, spasmodic, hemostatic, hematopoietic and capillary-strengthening properties. They are also prescribed to patients with certain vascular diseases, which are accompanied by fragility of tissues - capillarotoxicosis, scarlet fever, measles, eczema, allergic vasculitis, since the medicinal properties of chokeberry help to strengthen the walls of blood vessels, restoring their elasticity.

    Chokeberry berries increase immunity, have a positive effect on the endocrine system, lower blood cholesterol levels, and normalize blood pressure.

    Aronia is recommended to be eaten with diabetes mellitus, thyroid diseases, as a diuretic, it is prescribed for allergies, kidney disease and typhus. It improves digestion, increases appetite and acidity of gastric juice, promotes the formation and outflow of bile, and activates the liver.

    Pectins, which are part of chokeberry berries, remove radioactive substances, heavy metals and pathogenic microorganisms from the body, normalize intestinal function, and relieve spasms.

    The use of chokeberry berries reduces emotional imbalance by regulating the processes of arousal and inhibition.

    Burns are treated with fresh chokeberry juice.

    We bring to your attention several recipes from chokeberry:

    • - tincture of chokeberry with cloves: gently mash 1 kg of berries in a jar with a wooden pestle, add half a kilogram of sugar, three clove buds, mix, cover with gauze and leave at room temperature for two days, then pour 1 liter of vodka into the jar, cover it with a nylon lid and put in a dark place for two months, then strain and bottle. Store the finished liqueur in a cool place
    • - fortifying drink: pour 20 g of dry chokeberry berries with a glass of boiling water and heat for 5-10 minutes in a water bath, then let the broth cool and strain, not forgetting to squeeze the berries. Take 100 g 3-4 times a day
    • - vitamin tea: pour 2 tablespoons of dry chokeberry berries with two cups of boiling water, heat at a low boil for 10 minutes, remove from heat and let it brew for several hours. This tea is consumed three times a day with honey or sugar.

    Chokeberry - contraindications.

    Due to the fact that chokeberry contains a large amount of vitamin C, its abuse in patients with hypertension and angina pectoris can increase blood clotting and lead to the formation of blood clots. That is why it is counterproductive


    Medicinal properties and contraindications

    In addition to its taste properties, this plant has extremely pronounced healing properties; it is often used in traditional medicine recipes. The berries of the bush contain huge quantities of various vitamins and minerals that have a general strengthening effect on the body. Various products and remedies based on chokeberry are advised for people with low immunity, various skin diseases, and hypertension.

    However, chokeberry also has contraindications. You should not eat the fruits of chokeberry and products based on it for people with increased blood clotting, with stomach ulcers, high acidity, diseases of the duodenum.

    It should also be borne in mind that long-term intake of chokeberry fruits in food can provoke allergic reactions. This berry is beneficial when consumed in moderation.


    Watch the video: Chokeberry


    Previous Article

    How I Save Cucumbers Outdoors During Heavy Rains

    Next Article

    Basket Plant Information – How To Grow Callisia Plants